Archive for the 'Phenology' Category

Mar 31 2015

More Deer, Less Moose

Moose and deer (both photos from Wikimedia Commons)

What happens when the interval between spring thaw and leaf out gets longer?  Fifty years of detailed observations in New Hampshire’s Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest tell the tale.

In New Hampshire, where snow covers the ground all winter, spring thaw is a welcome event that finally exposes the soil.  Weeks later after lots of warm air and sunshine the trees leaf out.  In between these two events the sun warms the soil, the plants emerge, and wildflowers bloom.

Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest has kept detailed records of temperature, precipitation, snowpack, plants, animals, birds and invertebrates for more than half a century. An analysis of the data, published in BioScience in 2012, showed that the forest is getting warmer and wetter and the interval between spring thaw and leaf out has increased by 8 days.  Climate change is separating spring’s above ground (air) responses from the soil responses.

In the post-thaw interval severe cold events freeze the exposed soil and kill plant buds and invertebrates. This threatens some deciduous trees (yellow birch and sugar maple in New Hampshire) and birds find fewer invertebrates when they return from migration.  The record shows the mix of plants and animals is changing.

There are even changes in large animals.  For the past 50 years the snowpack has declined, an outcome that favors deer over moose and that seems to be happening at Hubbard Brook.

More deer, less moose.  If you write it down now you can see the trend later.

Read more here in Science Daily, December 2012.

 

p.s. It should be “More Deer, Fewer Moose” but I am quoting one of the articles and happen to like the ungrammatical juxtaposition.

(photo of moose by Ronald L. Bell, USFWS via Wikimedia Commons.  Photo of deer by josephamaker2018 via Wikimedia Commons. Click these links to see the original images.)

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Mar 30 2015

Early Flowering Signs of Spring

Published by under Phenology,Plants

Harbinger of Spring, Cedar Creek, 29 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

Despite this month’s cold weather yesterday’s outing* to Cedar Creek found two early-spring wildflowers.

Bright afternoon sunshine encouraged the wildflowers to bloom but it washed out the colors on the forest floor.  We all searched hard to find this Harbinger of Spring (Erigenia bulbosa).  Here’s a poor photo of the entire plant with an oak leaf for scale. It’s tiny! One leaf is sufficient to hide it.

Harbinger of Spring (photo by Kate St. John)

 

We also found a lot of Snow Trillium (Trillium nivale) in bloom but I had to be shown each flower because I couldn’t see them in the glare.   My best photo is of the one I stepped on.  Oh how embarrassing!

Snow trillium, 29 March 2015, Cedar Creek (photo by Kate St. John)

 

* This was a joint outing of the Wissahickon Nature Club and the Botanical Society of Western Pennsylvania.  Feel free to join us as we explore the flora and fauna in western Pennsylvania.  Click here for Wissahickon’s 2015 outing schedule (page 3 of the pdf) and here for the Botanical Society’s calendar.

 

(photos by Kate St. John)

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Mar 29 2015

Let The Leaves Begin

Published by under Phenology,Plants

Incipient forsythia leaves, 25 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

Closeup of bush honeysuckle leaves about to open, 25 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

In my neighborhood bush honeysuckle is the first to show leaves in the spring.  Last Wednesday these tiny leaves broke the bud.  I was excited!  Spring was here!

Not today. This morning it’s 17F degrees and it was so cold yesterday that it set a new record.

The wind will swing from the south today and warmer weather is coming this week.  Let the leaves begin.  (Please!)

 

(photo by Kate St. John)

p.s. Bush honeysuckle is an alien invasive from Asia so its internal clock is out of synch with our seasons.

p.p.s  This morning’s walk in Schenley Park will be brief so we don’t freeze.

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Mar 26 2015

Spring Moves North …

Published by under Phenology,Plants

Red tulip near Burlington, ON, 21 May 2014 (photo by Laslovarga via Wikimedia Commons)

The first crocuses bloomed in Pittsburgh last week but the rest of spring is taking its time.  Until today the month of March averaged 3F degrees below normal.  (Yesterday’s brought it up to -2.6.)  With that kind of track record, when will Spring get here?

Two years ago I wrote about the rule of thumb that “Spring moves north 13 miles a day“and showed how to watch it online at Journey North’s Tulip Test Garden.  I even used the rule of thumb to predict that the tulips would bloom at Clarion Area Elementary School’s Test Garden in Clarion, PA on April 20, 2013.

Was I right?  I looked up Clarion’s 2013 Tulip Test Garden results which said the tulips bloomed on April 22.  But … April 22 but was a Monday that year.  Maybe the tulips bloomed on Saturday, April 20 while the children weren’t at school to see them!  (The vagaries of data collection…)

Let’s try it this year.  Click here to read about the Rule of Thumb so you know how I’m doing this.  Then I’ll estimate …

On the 2015 Tulip Test Garden Map Durham, NC’s first tulip bloomed on March 20.  That’s 362 miles or about 28 days south of Clarion Area Elementary School (they’re participating again this year), so Clarion should bloom on April 17.

April 17 feels too early but we’ll see.  By the end of April we’ll know if “Spring moved north 13 miles a day” in 2015.

 

p.s. A big flock of American robins sang in the dark this morning in my neighborhood.  One more Sign of Spring!

 

(photo from Wikimedia Commons.  This tulip was photographed by Laslovarga on May 21, 2014 near Burlington, Ontario.)

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Mar 20 2015

Today, Stonehenge At Home

Stonehenge (photo from Wikimedia Commons in the public domain)

Throw Back Thursday (TBT) is a day late in honor of the Spring Equinox.

During today’s sun event there will be a Stonehenge effect in my neighborhood.

Click on the link to learn how the position of our houses causes Stonehenge At Home.

 

(photo of Stonehenge in the public domain via Wikimedia Commons. Click on the image to see the original)

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Mar 19 2015

The Crocus Report

Published by under Phenology,Plants

Crocuses at Phipps, 18 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

Ta dah!  We’ve reached a milestone in The Signs of Spring.  It’s time for the crocus report.

Yesterday morning the crocuses at Phipps Conservatory’s outdoor garden were just about to pop open.  The bright sun warmed the mulch and after another hour they had opened halfway.  I can say with confidence that they bloomed on March 18.

Crocuses opening at Phipps (photo by Kate St. John)

Is this late for crocuses?   I checked back through my blog posts, linked below, to collect their blooming history in Pittsburgh’s East End:

So … though this winter has seemed very cold the crocuses are not delayed too, too long.

 

(photos by Kate St. John)

p.s. They may have bloomed during Monday’s heat but I didn’t walk over to Phipps until yesterday.

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Mar 13 2015

Blackbirds and Coltsfoot: What to Expect in March

Published by under Phenology

Red-winged blackbird singing (photo by Bobby Greene)

Winter was so long and cold that it’s been hard to predict when the birds will arrive and the flowers will bloom, but suddenly this week we are out of winter’s grip.

What else can we expect to see outdoors, now that Spring is springing?  Here’s a brief phenology for March.

  • Ducks, geese and swans visit our lakes on migration.
  • First-of-Year red-winged blackbirds, common grackles, killdeer, tree swallows, phoebes and meadowlarks arrive from the south.
  • Large flocks of robins poke through soggy lawns and sing at dusk and dawn.
  • Peregrine falcons court and lay eggs.  (Yes, we have seen courting!)
  • Blooming later this month: coltsfoot, forsythia, snow trillium, harbinger of spring and violets.
  • Frogs and salamanders will be courting and mating.  Listen for spring peepers and wood frogs.  Be careful not to kill salamanders that cross the road at night!
  • It’s Mud Season and Jacket weather.  No more winter coats!

Have you seen these signs of Spring yet?

Yesterday I heard my first red-winged blackbird!  Soon they’ll be singing from the cattails, as in this photo by Bobby Greene.

 

(photo by Bobby Greene)

(*) definition of Phenology from Google: the study of cyclic and seasonal natural phenomena, especially in relation to climate and plant and animal life.

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Jan 03 2015

Early Singer

Carolina wren (photo by Gregory Diskin)

Speaking of First Bird of the Year, who’s the first bird to sing in your neighborhood?  Have you heard any singing yet?

In Pittsburgh most birds stop singing in mid summer, though a few late-nesting residents keep it up until autumn.  They’ve been silent for months now.

A few hardy souls sing in January.  The First Singer in my backyard is usually a Carolina wren who pipes up just before dawn.  On a good morning his voice echoes off the hills and prompts competing wrens to respond.

… But this is not a good morning.  We have freezing rain today. :(

Even on a good day he’s silent within 15 minutes.  I’ll know it’s spring when he sings all day.

 

(photo by Gregory Diskin)

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Dec 13 2014

Christmas In July

Published by under Phenology

Orange Sulphur butterlfly on Cardinal Flower (photo by Chuck Tague)

Red, green and gold holiday decorations are brightening Pittsburgh’s gray December days.

Nature paints with these colors all year long.

Chuck Tague photographed an orange sulphur butterfly on a cardinal flower in mid summer.

Christmas in July.

 

(photo by Chuck Tague)

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Oct 11 2014

Fall Color Weekend

Published by under Phenology

Fall scenery, October 2011 (photo by Steve Gosser)

This long Columbus Day weekend is a good time to get outdoors and enjoy the fall colors, especially in the forests north and east of Pittsburgh.

 

Steve Gosser photographed this beautiful scene in October 2011.

(photo by Steve Gosser)

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