Archive for the 'Migration' Category

Oct 07 2015

Through the Storm

Whimbrel (nicknamed Upinraaq) at the MacKenzie River, Canada. She winters in Brazil.

What happens to birds who migrate over the ocean during hurricane season?  Do they run into major storms?

Indeed they do.  Since 2007 when the Center for Conservation Biology began satellite-tracking whimbrels they’ve seen 9 of them fly through hurricanes or tropical storms.  All 9 birds survived!

This year when Upinraaq (above) launched from Newfoundland on her transoceanic journey, she had no idea she’d encounter Tropical Storm Erika.  By the time she hit Erika’s 46 mile per hour winds she’d already been flying non-stop for three days. Nonetheless she flew straight through the storm and made landfall at Suriname.

However, her destination is Brazil and she faces a big challenge in Suriname before she gets home.  Click here to read about her land-side challenge and the amazing feats of migrating whimbrels (one flew through Hurricane Irene!) at the CCB’s blog: Whimbrel Tracked Into Tropical Storm Erika.


(photo by Fletcher Smith linked from the Center for Conservation Biology. Click on the image to see the photo and read the story of Upinraaq.)

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Sep 24 2015

Just Plain Ornery

Sharp-shinned hawk atCrooked Creek, October 2014 (photo by Steve Gosser)

Sharp-shinned hawk at Crooked Creek, fall 2014 (photo by Steve Gosser)

Throw Back Thursday (TBT):

Broad-winged hawk migration is about to peak in Pennsylvania. Perhaps it already has.

Next on the Hawk Watch docket will be lots of sharp-shinned hawks, showing off their attitude as they fly.  The peaceful camaraderie of the broad-winged kettle is not for them.  Sharpies are just plain ornery!

Read about their attitude in this September 2008 article –>  Ornery


(photo by Steve Gosser)

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Sep 09 2015

Reluctant To Fly, Except In Migration

Sora (photo by Robert Greene, Jr)

Sora (photo by Robert Greene Jr)

Soras (Porzana carolina) are the most abundant rail in North America but they’re so elusive that we rarely see them fly.  When disturbed they prefer to walk deep into the marsh rather than go airborne.  If you happen to flush one it looks weak and labored in the air.

Though they appear to be fly poorly, soras migrate long distances.  They’re very cold sensitive so they have to leave before the weather turns.  Birds of North America says they become lethargic as the temperature approaches freezing so “most soras winter in areas that have a minimum January temperature above –1°C (30°F).”

From their breeding grounds in Canada and the northern/western U.S. to their wintering grounds in the southern U.S. and Central and South America, soras may fly up to 4,000 miles.  We don’t see them on migration because (presumably) they fly at night but they’re sometimes found resting on ships hundreds of miles offshore.  We know they cross the open ocean.  Some of them winter in Bermuda and the Caribbean.

This month soras are hanging out in wetlands en route on migration.  If you’re lucky enough to see one, think of its journey — reluctant to fly, except to escape the cold.


(photo by Robert Greene Jr)

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Sep 04 2015

Well Over 1,000 Birds

Broad-winged hawks are on the move.  By the middle of this month their numbers will peak at Pennsylvania hawk watches.

In summer broad-winged hawks are secretive but by late August the birds have finished breeding and are ready to start their journeys to Central and South America.

Unlike most raptors, broad-wings travel in flocks, rising together in thermal updrafts, gliding out toward their destination.  At the bottom of the glide they find another thermal and rise again.  From a distance they look like rising bubbles so the flock is called a “kettle.”   The video above shows them gliding. Click here to read more about kettles.

Thermal updrafts are best over sun-heated land so the hawks avoid flying over lakes and oceans.  As they move south, the flocks grow in size and become concentrated at the northern edges of the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico.  By the time they reach South Texas there are hundreds of birds per kettle and half a million broad-wing hawks per day.

To really see the sky filled with birds, visit the hawk watches at Corpus Christi, Texas or Veracruz, Mexico’s River of Raptors in the last week of September and the first week of October.

The video below shows broad-wings over Corpus Christi.  One kettle contains well over 1,000 birds!


(videos from YouTube. Click on the YouTube logo to see more information about the video)

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Sep 03 2015

TBT: Bug Migration

Common Green Darner dragonflies mating (photo by Chuck Tague)

Common Green Darner dragonflies mating (photo by Chuck Tague)

Throw Back Thursday (TBT):

Birds aren’t the only ones migrating right now.

In the early 1990’s scientists discovered that some dragonflies migrate, too.  Here’s the story in a September 2008 blog post:  Bug Migration.


(photo by Chuck Tague)

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Aug 28 2015

Virtual Lobster For Lunch

Belted Kingfisher (screenshot from YouTube video)

Did you know that belted kingfishers eat crayfish as well as fish?

In this YouTube video a female belted kingfisher hunts from a perch and returns with a crayfish.

The crayfish is so large, compared to the bird, that it looks like she’s caught a lobster.  How will she eat it?

Click on the screenshot to watch.


(screenshot from YouTube video by Mark J. Thomas)

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Aug 24 2015

On Time For Jewelweed

Ruby-throated hummingbird in Schenley Park, August 2015 (photo by Soji Yamakawa)

Ruby-throated hummingbird in Schenley Park, August 2015 (photo by Soji Yamakawa)
Click on this photo to see a slideshow.

Though many people have hummingbird feeders they aren’t enough to support the birds on migration.  What do ruby-throated hummingbirds eat on their way south?

A study by R.I. Bertin in 1982 found that their primary food source is orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) shown in the photo above.  Birds of North America online says:

“Overland migration in North America is nearly synchronous with peak flowering of jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), suggesting this flower is an important nectar source during this time and may influence the timing of migration.”

This month orange jewelweed is thriving by the creek and wetland in Schenley Park.  That’s where I found Soji Yamakawa with his camera last week, spending many hours photographing hummingbirds before his work resumes at Carnegie-Mellon’s Mechanical Engineering Department this fall.   Click on the photo above to see a slideshow of his favorite shots.

Soji and I chatted about the birds and noted there were no adult males in the group. Most adult males have left our area by the second week of August but look closely at the throats of these birds and you’ll see faint stippling or a small patch of red feathers.  They’re immature males, just hatched this spring.

If you want to see hummingbirds in the wild this month, stake out a patch of orange jewelweed and watch for movement among the flowers.  You’ll get a bonus, too.  Rose-breasted grosbeaks forage among the stems, eating the jewelweed seeds.


p.s.  That white patch just above the hummingbird’s bill is jewelweed pollen.

(photos by Soji Yamakawa)

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Aug 10 2015

Ospreys Getting Ready To Go

Immature osprey flying over the Duquesne nest (photo by Dana Nesiti)

Immature osprey flying over the Duquesne nest, 19 July 2015 (photo by Dana Nesiti)

The nesting season is over for most ospreys in Pennsylvania and some are already on the move.

In early August young ospreys stay close to home and practice their fishing skills under dad’s watchful eye, but it’s likely their mother has already left on migration.  This osprey family in Duquesne, PA is a case in point.

On July 19 Dana Nesiti photographed them when only two had fledged and their activity was still centered on the nest.

Immature osprey coming in for a landing at the Duquesne nest (photo by Dana Nesiti)

Immature osprey landing at the Duquesne nest while mom & siblings watch, 19 July 2015 (photo by Dana Nesiti)

When Dana returned on July 25, all three had fledged and competition had intensified for their parents’ handouts.  Below, the youngster at right has food while two others squabble over a fish. The bird on the far left grabbed his sibling by the wing to pull him away. “Give it to me!”

"Give it to me!" juvenile osprey grabs his sibling's wing to get the fish (photo by Dana Nesiti)

“Give it to me!” juvenile osprey grabs his sibling’s wing to get the fish, 25 July 2015 (photo by Dana Nesiti)

The winner flew off with the live fish.

Juvenile osprey flies off with the prize -- a live fish (photo by Dana Nesiti)

Juvenile osprey flies off with the prize: a live fish, 25 July 2015 (photo by Dana Nesiti)

But now more than two weeks later, the nest is not the focal point and the family will be hard to find.

Ospreys live in family groups during the breeding season but otherwise live alone.  The family starts to break up shortly after the young fledge.  Mom leaves before the kids are independent while dad stays behind to feed them for 10-20 days or more.  When the youngsters are self sufficient they leave, too.  Finally their father departs, 7 to 39 days after his lady left town.

Because they eat live fish North American ospreys don’t dare to linger where the water will freeze.  They spend the winter in Central and South America and the Caribbean, each at his own favorite place.  The adults won’t meet again until they return to their breeding territory.  The juveniles will stay south for two to three years before they come north to breed for the first time.

After this family has left Duquense we’ll see other ospreys passing through but “our” birds will be gone until next spring.


(photos by Dana Nesiti)

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Jul 14 2015

Find The Whimbrel

Whimbrel with eggs (photo by Dr. Matthew Perry, USGS)

Whimbrel with eggs at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada (photo by Dr. Matthew Perry, USGS)

Can you see the whimbrel and four eggs?

These ground-nesting shorebirds have natural camouflage but I’ll bet you can see the one above because the eggs have shadows and the bird’s mouth is open.  If you were holding the camera you’d hear the whimbrel shouting like this.

Whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus) nest in the northern tundra around the world.  In North America they lay eggs in the first week of June that hatch in the first week of July.  Mom stays with the family 3-14 days after the chicks hatch.  Then she leaves on migration while dad stays with the kids until they fledge in August.  The kids don’t leave until September.  This means that some sort of whimbrel is on the move in North America from July through September.

Successful mothers and birds whose nests have failed arrive on northern coasts in July on the first stage of their long migration.  Mary Birdsong saw this one yesterday at Presque Isle on Lake Erie’s shore (video below).

Their early stops are only way stations where the whimbrels fatten up for their transoceanic trips.  Some North American whimbrels fly non-stop 2,500 miles to South America.  (Others save time by wintering on the southern U.S. coast.)

Asian whimbrels spend the winter as far south as Australia. Here’s a group in Singapore.

Whimbrels wintering in Singapore (photo by Lip Kee via Wikimedia Commons)

Whimbrels wintering in Singapore (photo by Lip Kee via Wikimedia Commons)

But on migration they travel alone.

This month, if you’re lucky, you might see a whimbrel on the shore.  You’ll see it when its long down-curved bill stands out. Woo hoo!


(photo of whimbrel at nest by Dr. Matthew Perry, USGS. Video of whimbrel at Presque Isle State Park 13 July 2015 by Mary Birdsong. Photo of whimbrels in Singapore by Lip Kee via Wikimedia Commons.)


p.s. I often go to Conneaut Harbor, Ohio to find shorebirds but the sandspit is inundated right now because the harbor water level is 20 inches higher than normal.  See this message at OhioBirds.

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Jun 09 2015

How Deforestation in Central America Affects Your Wood Thrush

Published by under Migration,Songbirds

Wood Thrush (photo by Steve Gosser, 2008)

Wood Thrush (photo by Steve Gosser)

Though you may not have noticed, wood thrushes aren’t as plentiful as they used to be.  According to the Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania, “they are down by almost half since 1966 … though they remain widespread.”

The change is due to loss of breeding habitat (suburban sprawl for instance), acid rain (which affects their breeding success), and an interesting fact we learned a few years ago.

A team from the University of York headed by Bridget Stutchbury has conducted a long term study of wood thrush migration. Using geolocators they’ve tagged wood thrushes on both their breeding and wintering grounds to find out where the birds go and how long it takes them to get there.  In 2009 they reported that wood thrushes take their time going south but are quick to return in the spring taking only two weeks to get ‘home.’

The data also revealed that regional populations of wood thrushes stick together on both their wintering and breeding grounds.  Birds that breed in Crawford and Erie Counties, Pennsylvania spend the winter together in a small section of eastern Honduras and Nicaragua.  Birds that breed in Vermont spend the winter at one location in Nicaragua. The map below from the study’s press release shows a star for each tagging site and round circles for the birds’ destinations.  Notice that Pittsburgh’s birds spend the winter in Belize.

Breeding-wintering connections for wood thrushes. Each star is a site where geolocators were deployed on wood thrushes. Round circles are birds’ sites in the opposite season.  Credit: Image courtesy of York University

Breeding-wintering connections for wood thrushes. Each star is a site where geolocators were deployed on wood thrushes. Round circles are birds’ sites in the opposite season.
From: Connectivity of Wood Thrush Breeding, Wintering, and Migration Sites Based on Range-Wide Tracking. Conservation Biology, 2014
Credit: Image courtesy of York University

Now that we know where the wood thrushes go it’s easier to find out what’s happened.  If the one place your region’s wood thrushes spend the winter is logged, fewer will survive to return in the spring.

That’s how deforestation in Central America affects your wood thrush.

Check the maps for yourself on page 9 of the study –> here.


p.s. Louisiana:  This study also found that in the spring all wood thrushes cross the Gulf of Mexico and land at one specific spot near New Orleans.  If that spot goes bad, it’s bad news for wood thrushes!

(credits: Wood thrush photo by Steve Gosser, map courtesy of York University press release via Science Daily)

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