Apr 01 2015

Corals Tell The Climate Story, April 16

Coral reef at Palmyra Atoll (photo by Jim Maragos/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

Coral reef at Palmyra Atoll (photo by Jim Maragos/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

Knowing the Earth’s past climate is key to understanding the future but our records of the past are sketchy.  Paleoclimatologists turn to fossils for help.  In cold and temperate areas they analyze ice cores and ancient tree rings.  In the tropics corals tell the climate’s tale.

Obtaining a record of the warm oceans’ history is important because so much of Earth’s weather is controlled by conditions in the Tropics.  Think El Nino and La Nina, for starters.

In the tropical Pacific Dr. Kim Cobb examines live and fossil corals to assemble a climate record that now spans 7,000+ years.  Thanks to the University Honors College she’s coming to Pittsburgh on April 16.  Through video and photos, she’ll take the audience to her field sites to hear the corals tell their climate story.

Dr. Kim Cobb
Corals as Climate Communicators
April 16, 2015, 4:00 PM

Charity Randall Theatre (in the Stephen Foster Memorial Building)
4301 Forbes Ave

Here’s a quick video of Kim Cobb discussing climatology.  She describes herself on  Twitter as “40% Climate Scientist, 40% Mom and 20% Indian Jones.”  Her lecture on corals will not be a dry subject!

 

This lecture is free and open to the public but space is limited. Click here to read more about this University of Pittsburgh Honors College event and reserve your seat.

 

(photo of coral reef at Palmyra Atoll (a location where Kim Cobb works on corals) by Jim Maragos/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via Wikimedia Commons. Video of Dr. Kim Cobb via PopTech.org)

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Mar 31 2015

More Deer, Less Moose

Moose and deer (both photos from Wikimedia Commons)

What happens when the interval between spring thaw and leaf out gets longer?  Fifty years of detailed observations in New Hampshire’s Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest tell the tale.

In New Hampshire, where snow covers the ground all winter, spring thaw is a welcome event that finally exposes the soil.  Weeks later after lots of warm air and sunshine the trees leaf out.  In between these two events the sun warms the soil, the plants emerge, and wildflowers bloom.

Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest has kept detailed records of temperature, precipitation, snowpack, plants, animals, birds and invertebrates for more than half a century. An analysis of the data, published in BioScience in 2012, showed that the forest is getting warmer and wetter and the interval between spring thaw and leaf out has increased by 8 days.  Climate change is separating spring’s above ground (air) responses from the soil responses.

In the post-thaw interval severe cold events freeze the exposed soil and kill plant buds and invertebrates. This threatens some deciduous trees (yellow birch and sugar maple in New Hampshire) and birds find fewer invertebrates when they return from migration.  The record shows the mix of plants and animals is changing.

There are even changes in large animals.  For the past 50 years the snowpack has declined, an outcome that favors deer over moose and that seems to be happening at Hubbard Brook.

More deer, less moose.  If you write it down now you can see the trend later.

Read more here in Science Daily, December 2012.

 

(photo of moose by Ronald L. Bell, USFWS via Wikimedia Commons.  Photo of deer by josephamaker2018 via Wikimedia Commons. Click these links to see the original images.)

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Mar 30 2015

Early Flowering Signs of Spring

Published by under Phenology,Plants

Harbinger of Spring, Cedar Creek, 29 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

Despite this month’s cold weather yesterday’s outing* to Cedar Creek found two early-spring wildflowers.

Bright afternoon sunshine encouraged the wildflowers to bloom but it washed out the colors on the forest floor.  We all searched hard to find this Harbinger of Spring (Erigenia bulbosa).  Here’s a poor photo of the entire plant with an oak leaf for scale. It’s tiny! One leaf is sufficient to hide it.

Harbinger of Spring (photo by Kate St. John)

 

We also found a lot of Snow Trillium (Trillium nivale) in bloom but I had to be shown each flower because I couldn’t see them in the glare.   My best photo is of the one I stepped on.  Oh how embarrassing!

Snow trillium, 29 March 2015, Cedar Creek (photo by Kate St. John)

 

* This was a joint outing of the Wissahickon Nature Club and the Botanical Society of Western Pennsylvania.  Feel free to join us as we explore the flora and fauna in western Pennsylvania.  Click here for Wissahickon’s 2015 outing schedule (page 3 of the pdf) and here for the Botanical Society’s calendar.

 

(photos by Kate St. John)

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Mar 30 2015

Night Roost

Dorothy roosting at the nest, 29 March 2015 (photo from the National Aviary falconcam at University of Pittsburgh)

Dorothy roosted at the nest last night.  Here she is standing over the scrape with her beak under her right wing.

She’s probably feeling “egg-y.”

 

(photo from the National Aviary falconcam at University of Pittsburgh, 29 March 2015, 10:16 p.m.)

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Mar 29 2015

This Morning in Schenley Park

Participants in the Schenley Park Walk, 29 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

Ready for a walk in Schenley Park, 29 March 2015: Diane, Jen, Rachel, Missy, Jen, Hayley, Julia, Rosie (photo by Kate St. John)

Nine of us braved the cold this morning at the Bartlett Shelter in Schenley Park.  We didn’t see anything blooming in 20F degrees but it was sunny and the birds were active.

We saw three Best Birds:  a fox sparrow sunning himself by the stream, a golden-crowned kinglet flitting in the treetops, and a male pileated woodpecker hammering a dead branch (unusual for Schenley).  I checked my records for the fox sparrow. He’s the earliest I’ve seen in Schenley Park.  They always arrive alone — usually April 4 to 9.

Here are the birds we saw and heard:
* Red-bellied Woodpeckers
* Downy Woodpeckers
* Northern Flicker (heard, not seen)
* Pileated Woodpecker, unusual in Schenley Park
* Blue Jays, abundant and loud
* American Crow, flyover
* Carolina Chickadees
* Tufted Titmice
* White-breasted Nuthatches
* Golden-crowned Kinglet, 1
* European Starlings
* Fox Sparrow, 1 by the stream
* Song Sparrows, singing
* Dark-eyed Juncoes, singing
* Northern Cardinals, singing
* Common Grackles
* House Finches

I’m so glad we went out this morning!  If I hadn’t promised to be there I would have missed that fox sparrow.  :)

 

The next outing will be Sunday April 26, 8:30am.  Meet at the Schenley Park Visitors Center (near Phipps).  Check here for details as the date approaches.

(photo of the outing group, 29 March 2015 !If I misspelled your name, please let me know in a Comment)

 

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Mar 29 2015

Let The Leaves Begin

Published by under Phenology,Plants

Incipient forsythia leaves, 25 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

Closeup of bush honeysuckle leaves about to open, 25 March 2015 (photo by Kate St. John)

In my neighborhood bush honeysuckle is the first to show leaves in the spring.  Last Wednesday these tiny leaves broke the bud.  I was excited!  Spring was here!

Not today. This morning it’s 17F degrees and it was so cold yesterday that it set a new record.

The wind will swing from the south today and warmer weather is coming this week.  Let the leaves begin.  (Please!)

 

(photo by Kate St. John)

p.s. Bush honeysuckle is an alien invasive from Asia so its internal clock is out of synch with our seasons.

p.p.s  This morning’s walk in Schenley Park will be brief so we don’t freeze.

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Mar 28 2015

Hays Eagle Nest Failed

Female bald eagle lifts eggshell at Hays (screenshot from the Hays bald Eaglecam)

Female bald eagle lifts eggshell at Hays nest, 27 Mar 2015, 5:23am (screenshot from the Hays bald Eaglecam)

If you haven’t heard…

Before dawn on Friday morning March 27 it looked as if the egg in the Hays bald eagle nest was about to hatch.  The pair had had two eggs but one was non-viable and the birds removed it on March 13.

All eyes were on this last egg but by evening it was apparent that it too was not viable. The parents abandoned the nest.

What an abrupt and sad end to the Hay nesting season!

Read more coverage at:

 

(screenshot from the Hays Bald Eaglecam, installed by PixController)

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Mar 28 2015

Mixed Parentage

Redhead-Ring-necked Duck hybird, Duck Hollow, Pittsburgh, PA, 25 Mar 2015 (photo by Tom Moeller)

Redhead-Ring-necked hybrid duck at Duck Hollow, Pittsburgh, PA, 25 Mar 2015 (photo by Tom Moeller)

What duck is this?

Photographed by Tom Moeller on March 25 at Duck Hollow in Pittsburgh, this odd duck defies a single label.  Apparently one of his parents was a redhead, the other a ring-necked duck.

Here are the two species he resembles: male redhead on the left, male ring-necked duck on the right.

Two male ducks: Redhead and Ring-necked (photos by Chuck Tague)

Two male ducks: Redhead and Ring-necked (photos by Chuck Tague)

He has the head color, eye color and shoulder of a redhead and the head shape, bill color and body color (except for his non-white shoulder) of a ring-necked duck.

Depending on the light and the distance you might see a feature of either species and call him accordingly.  David Poortinga figured him out and told Tom what it was.

Here’s another look him.  He’s a redhead with a fancy bill and black back.  Or he’s a ring-necked duck with a red head.

Redhead-Ring-necked Duck hybird, Duck Hollow, Pittsburgh, PA, 25 Mar 2015 (photo by Tom Moeller)

Redhead-Ring-necked Duck hybrid, Duck Hollow, Pittsburgh, PA, 25 Mar 2015 (photo by Tom Moeller)

Ducks and geese hybridize a lot compared to other birds.  Duck hunters see these hybrids up close because they have the bird in hand so Ducks Unlimited explains:

“Waterfowl crossbreed more often than any other family of birds. Scientists have recorded more than 400 hybrid combinations among waterfowl species. Mallards crossbreed with nearly 50 other species, and wood ducks hybridize with a surprising 26 other species. Nearly 20 percent of waterfowl hybrid offspring are capable of reproducing.”

Mallards being the least picky, or the perhaps most promiscuous, breed with many species.  According to Ducks Unlimited their mates include northern pintails, black ducks, wigeon, shovelers, cinnamon teal, green-winged teal, and gadwalls.  Perhaps every dabbling duck is a mallard at heart.

Will the Odd Duck attract a mate this spring ?  If so, will she be a redhead or a ring-necked duck?  What will his offspring look like?

Yikes!  Talk about mixed parentage!

 

p.s. As of yesterday, March 27, the hybrid was still at Duck Hollow.

(photo of hybrid Redhead-Ring-necked Duck by Tom Moeller.  Composite photos of redhead and ring-necked ducks by Chuck Tague)

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Mar 27 2015

Sounds of Spring: Frogs!

Published by under Insects, Fish, Frogs

Spring peeper calling in the Ozarks (photo by Justin Meissen via Wikimedia Commons)

Spring peeper calling in the Ozarks (photo by Justin Meissen via Wikimedia Commons)

Have you heard any frogs lately?

In early spring male frogs call from ephemeral pools to attract females to mate with them.  This week in Frick Park I’ve heard spring peepers calling in the wetland next to Nine Mile Run.  The sound is so miraculous in the City(*) that I always stop to absorb it.

Spring peepers are loud but so tiny I couldn’t find them.  Look how small they are compared to someone’s hand!  Needless to say I didn’t see the “singers” in Frick Park.

Spring peeper found at Sault College woodlot, Algoma District, Ontario, Canada (photo from Wikimedia Commons)

Spring peeper found at Sault College woodlot, Algoma District, Ontario, Canada (photo from Wikimedia Commons)

Peepers aren’t the only ones calling.  Right now you can hear wood frogs and others if you’re in the right habitat.  But which ones?

PA Herps does statewide surveys to confirm the ranges of Pennsylvania’s native frogs (and much more).  Based on the PA Herps Frogs and Toads List I made this table of the frogs and toads that still occur in western Pennsylvania west of the Allegheny Front.  I added my own description of the calls I know.  Click here on the PA Herps website to look up each frog including their photos and range map.

Frog Name Description of Call
Eastern American Toad, Anaxyrus americanus a whirring trill
Fowler’s Toad, Anaxyrus fowleri
Cope’s Gray Treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis
Eastern Gray Treefrog, Hyla versicolor
Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus a low ‘hrrrrmp’
Green Frog, Lithobates clamitans a tuneless banjo twang
Pickerel Frog, Lithobates palustris
Northern Leopard Frog, Lithobates pipiens
Wood Frog, Lithobates sylvaticus sounds like ducks quacking
Mountain Chorus Frog, Pseudacris brachyphona
Northern Spring Peeper, Pseudacris crucifer LOUD! jingle bells -or- plinking the teeth of a comb
Western Chorus Frog, Pseudacris triseriata
Eastern Spadefoot, Scaphoipus holbrookii

** See the comments for frog call descriptions from Sue.

 

To hear them, look them up here on the USGS Frog Quiz website.   (Your computer must have QuickTime installed.)

If you know a lot of frog calls you can test your skills at the USGS Frog Quiz here.  Don’t feel bad if you don’t recognize the calls. I tried the quiz and flunked immediately.  As you can see by the gaps in my table, I don’t know many frog sounds.  It’s time to get outdoors and remedy that!

 

AAAACKKK!  The USGS Frog Calls website became temporarily unavailable this morning just as I was publishing their links!  I am leaving the links in place, hoping they will turn it back on by the time you see this article.  Meanwhile, here’s the sound of spring peepers.

 

NOTES:

Can you add frog call descriptions to my table? Leave a comment with your description. ** Thank you, Sue! See her comments.

* The miracle in Frick Park is a complex of meanders and wetlands completed in 2006 by the Nine Mile Run Watershed Association and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  Spring peepers found the wetlands on their own and now loudly pronounce them good for breeding every spring.

(photo of spring peeper calling by Justin Meissen via Wikimedia Commons.  Photo of spring peeper on hand by Fungus Guy via Wikimedia Commons.  Click on the images to see the originals)

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Mar 26 2015

Spring Moves North …

Published by under Phenology,Plants

Red tulip near Burlington, ON, 21 May 2014 (photo by Laslovarga via Wikimedia Commons)

The first crocuses bloomed in Pittsburgh last week but the rest of spring is taking its time.  Until today the month of March averaged 3F degrees below normal.  (Yesterday’s brought it up to -2.6.)  With that kind of track record, when will Spring get here?

Two years ago I wrote about the rule of thumb that “Spring moves north 13 miles a day“and showed how to watch it online at Journey North’s Tulip Test Garden.  I even used the rule of thumb to predict that the tulips would bloom at Clarion Area Elementary School’s Test Garden in Clarion, PA on April 20, 2013.

Was I right?  I looked up Clarion’s 2013 Tulip Test Garden results which said the tulips bloomed on April 22.  But … April 22 but was a Monday that year.  Maybe the tulips bloomed on Saturday, April 20 while the children weren’t at school to see them!  (The vagaries of data collection…)

Let’s try it this year.  Click here to read about the Rule of Thumb so you know how I’m doing this.  Then I’ll estimate …

On the 2015 Tulip Test Garden Map Durham, NC’s first tulip bloomed on March 20.  That’s 362 miles or about 28 days south of Clarion Area Elementary School (they’re participating again this year), so Clarion should bloom on April 17.

April 17 feels too early but we’ll see.  By the end of April we’ll know if “Spring moved north 13 miles a day” in 2015.

 

p.s. A big flock of American robins sang in the dark this morning in my neighborhood.  One more Sign of Spring!

 

(photo from Wikimedia Commons.  This tulip was photographed by Laslovarga on May 21, 2014 near Burlington, Ontario.)

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